The Evolution of Homo Sapiens

Where Homo sapiens came from is a major part of the human revolution.

2/21/202437 min read

1. Early Homo Sapiens Evolution

Homo sapiens started evolving in Africa from our most recent common ancestor with chimpanzees about 7 million years ago. The earliest fossils of Homo sapiens were found in Ethiopia. The large rift systems and shared habitable zones with other primate species create the possibility for Homo sapien’s evolution in this region. Human evolution is characterised by a number of significant milestones. Some of the earliest fossils we have found come from Africa and Asia and they help us establish when and where the species Homo sapiens developed. For example, the oldest of these fossils suggest that Homo sapiens first evolved in Africa, and when we look at the DNA of living people, and the DNA of these early fossils, we find that the amount of genetic diversity in the people is greatest in Africans. As people spread to different parts of the world, they took only a small part of the genetic variation with them. This means there is less genetic diversity in non-African populations. The reason for this is that as humans migrated out of Africa, only a small group of them went on to populate the rest of the world, carrying only a tiny fraction of the entire genetic variation in our species. This became the pattern for future migration and exploration. Over hundreds of thousands of years, early humans developed a nomadic lifestyle. However, our ancient ancestors were not driven by culture or exploration. Instead, Homo sapiens’ evolution was driven by the realities of survival. Cultures began to develop as humans became more sedentary and this ultimately led to the modern world as we know it today.

1.1. Origin of Homo Sapiens

The origin of Homo sapiens can be traced back to around 200,000 years ago. They were originally found in Africa, specifically near the regions of Ethiopia. Homo sapiens evolved from their predecessors, Homo heidelbergensis. It is believed that at one point Homo sapiens began to migrate into other parts of the world, such as Asia and Europe and that they increased in population size as well. This allowed them to cover the earth's surface and settle in many varied regions and environments. Homo sapiens had to adapt to their surroundings - for example, developing larger, taller bodies and narrower frames to disperse heat in hotter climates. The only species left in this group of 'great apes' is Homo sapiens. Old species like Homo neanderthalis and Homo Cro-Magnon are well-known examples which show how human organisms have developed and progressed over time. This process is known as human evolution - the process of how the human body has changed over time through adaptations from older strains of species. By monitoring the changes in the size and shape of the human anatomy through time, we can hope to advance our knowledge and understanding of human ecology (the interaction of humans within their environment) and eventually piece together an ever more accurate depiction of what Homo sapiens are today.

1.2. Early Homo Sapiens Characteristics

What helped to identify the Homo sapiens type is different, mainly the main features such as the skeletal structure. Compared to Australopithecus, the Homo sapiens had lighter skeletons and more pronounced structures. For example, the craniums were less sloping and more vertical in nature. Modern Homo sapiens brains are larger than those of the earlier species. They also have a large cranial capacity, which measures about 1350cc. This characteristic is important in helping to identify the Homo sapien remains and using cranial capacity to distinguish them from the rest. The Homo sapiens skull is also rounded and has a smooth continuity from one feature to the other. This continuous pattern from the forehead, cheeks, teeth and chin is a unique characteristic that helps to set the Homo sapien remains apart from other species. The body was typically smaller with a height of about 5 feet and a less robust skeleton. This meant that they were less physically active and used their mental capabilities to survive. Culturally, the early Homo sapiens showed a characteristic improvement, mainly in the development and use of tools. During the course of evolution and before modern man came into existence, the Homo sapiens had developed and improved tool making. The Homo sapiens type is said to have been the first human type to develop regional variations and spread across different parts of the world.

1.3. Migration Patterns

The first Homo sapiens left Africa about 70,000 years ago. They migrated to the Middle East and then on to populations in Asia, Australia, Europe and other parts of the world. Most of these early travelers likely moved along the coastlines, where food and water were plentiful. However, successful human migrations made across Eurasia are not necessarily explained by routes around the coastlines. The migration patterns of our ancestors have also been investigated from the genetic and geographic locations of modern human populations. These studies must be careful not to present interpretations that appeal to genetic determinantal causal it's because behavior and biology are not the same thing. The research focuses on mtDNA and Y chromosomes in populations to track the male and female lines, mistreating safely assumption that most migration groups would involve movement of families or -- at least -- mixed sex social sets. The testing do not isolate any genetic causeways with both directions of human migration, such as the Bering Strait, showing evidence of Homo sapiens moving back and forth. This combined with geographic studies show that these movements would be feasible for human populations to prosper and increase in number. For example, the area now known as the Red Sea would have suffered for much lower salinity levels 80-70,000 years ago, and over time a wetter and wetter land bridge has emerged. This lets Homo species successfully create, the tincture in an move with the consequence that Homo species was able to migrate north and east out of Africa.

2. Development of Homo Sapiens Society

It seems that the next title is explicitly introducing some information about the “tools and technology”, which I think is an interesting part to start about in the following contents. I believe that the origin and development of tools in human history is mainly related to <Organization> people’s work and living environments. As a result, the information of the changes caused by the development of human tools will be demonstrated in the “tools and technology” part. On the other hand, “social structures” is another key point about the development of Homo Sapiens Society. From the heading, readers might expect information relevant to the past and present social organizational structure of human beings. The evolutionary processes of social living from nomadic society to modern day residential pattern of human beings will be discussed in the last part of this research. However, the time frame and terminologies in this research is more than a linear dimensions. <Organization> cultural approach will be adopted to focus on how cultures and cultural interactions influence the way people in the society make sense of themselves, in addition to have a critical impact on the direction of cultures. Next, I will put the focus on the tools which early Homo Sapiens love to create and the great technologies that developed as new generations coming into the world.

2.1. Tools and Technology

The key to Homo sapiens successfully migrating from Africa is displayed in their tools. Homo sapiens used a Lower Paleolithic technology known as the Levallois technique for creating tools. This process involves following a series of steps to create a tool, specifically cutting flakes from a prepared core. The technique "provided a more systematic way of producing number of cutting tools from a single source of raw material than earlier Acheulean methods". Such tools were vital for Homo sapien's survival and migration. For instance, the discovery of Acheulean hand axes in both Africa and England suggests Homo heidelbergensis migration. However, Homo sapiens were the first species to successfully use the Levallois technique. This is important as new technology could create a divide amongst working groups such as we see in modern society. Hunter-gathering groups used different types of tools, such as the Neanderthals using the Mousterian technique and the Homo sapiens using the Levallois. This allows for a theory of why Homo sapiens eventually out lived Neanderthals: Neanderthals failed to adapt and change their methods where as Homo sapiens developed new technology over time. Also, having different methods in tool production suggests that different groups of early Homo sapiens across the continents worked separately, potentially leading to a divide in societies.

2.2. Social Structures

The survival of Homo sapiens did not only depend on their physical attributes as being more evolved organisms but on their collective mental capacity and social structures. Homo sapiens are the only species on Earth who have been able to communicate complex ideas and cooperate in groups. The development of these capabilities dates back to when Homo sapiens first started living in large groups, and that necessity was driven by the requirement to find and as well as protect food sources. As explained in the "Out of Eden" theory, the large groups of Homo sapiens could only have grown around fresh water supplies that would have attracted other herbivores which early Homo sapiens would have preyed upon. This has been supported by recent evidence in fossil finds that suggest that early Homo sapien societies clustered around these water sources up until about 10,000 years ago. These large settlements required leadership and an organization of systems so that every member would have a specified role to play; there had to be rules and decisions had to be made. This resulted in the development of what is known as "transactional leadership", which is a leadership style where the leader takes immediate control over the group decision-making progress, and the focus is on the leader and its decisions as opposed to the authority of the leader. Two books which support this theory are "Sapiens" by Yuval Noah Harari and "The Incredible Unlikeliness of Being" by Dr. Alice Robert. These books also describe that Homo sapiens could not have developed social structures that modern humans recognize today without the development of complex language. It has been estimated that the human race collectively speaks around 7,000 different languages and many more dialects but all modern language can be broken down into three layers; phonemes, words, and grammar. By far the most important language is grammar, because the development of grammar was the starting point for humans to create meaning and share complex ideas. It meant that knowledge can accumulate and the invasion of other groups could be warned of. Yuval Noah Harari describes this theory in his book "Sapiens", where he explains that the development of complex language gave rise to things such as ideology, religion, xenophobia, and myths while Dr. Alice Robert also furthers this theory in her books.

3. Cultural Advancements

Advances in tool making and the use of fire spread rapidly among the people of the knowledge revolution. These new technologies appear in different areas of the world, and this indicates that ideas were being exchanged, perhaps with the movements of populations. The cultures of early humans started to change with these new technologies and this involved aspects of the lives of the people. For example, the need for clothes was reducing as humans started using animal skin for clothing as opposed to being covered in body hair. Clothes were not only useful as a way of providing warmth but they also were used as a means of identifying the social status and wealth of a person. From the material revolution to the knowledge revolution, more advancements in different fields of culture were realized. This period saw the innovation of art that took the form of paintings and sculpture. Scientists believe that the ability to think and plan developed during this period and hence the birth of art. This period was marked by the birth of works of art, knowledge on new and better materials, and creativity. This is called the ‘great leap’ and it led to the rise of globally connected populations. So what began with early humans in Africa spread throughout the world and cultures converged. Tools became more varied and new innovations allowed humans to develop new techniques for hunting and gathering including the creation of domestic tools like axes and digging tools. In return, the more that humans exploited their environments, the more the climate was affected through human-induced factors such as deforestation and overhunting. Next, language started to develop and this included complex sentence structure and grammar. Archaeologists explain that evidence of early language development can be found in items such as bone or rock carvings and cave art. These displays would have served as a way to communicate a shared understanding of the environment between a small social group. But language would have offered more than just the opportunity to share information. It would have also helped humans to develop a more complex division of labor giving our ancestors a competitive edge. Work could be more efficiently distributed by planning through the communication of new ideas and strategies. Groups that used early language would have reaped the social and economic benefits of shared knowledge allowing for collective development when compared to the groups that did not have a common language. The role of language and the benefits of shared knowledge can still be seen in the present day in many cultures.

3.1. Art and Symbolism

Unlike other species, Homo sapiens created finely crafted tools and jewelry, and produced art and music. The first signs of such complex processes tend to emerge somewhere between about 100,000 and 80,000 years ago. Most evidence for early art and music are in forms of carvings of objects or patterns, painted objects or painting in caves, or musical instruments. One well-known example comes from Blombos Cave in South Africa, with the discovery in the last 20 years of some small pieces of ochre - a kind of soft metallic mineral. These have been inscribed with a series of close parallel lines, and the pattern was clearly deliberately created on a prepared surface of the ochre with a fine stone. This suggests the ochre was a piece of some personal adornment, a kind of jewelry. Homo sapiens must have had the inclination to create and to become skillful at creating. Animals show instinctive 'fixed action patterns' of behavior. For example, certain insects produce very specific patterns of vibration in response to sounds of a particular frequency. It seems that art and music involve not just the ability to make things, but an element of belief - the belief that one thing can stand for another - a premise of language and religious faith as well. So creating the earliest evidence for art and music are seen as firm evidence for the great leap forward in terms of the further development of the human mind and human behavior. Kaye and Sapolsky found that people tended to scan from left to right across a work in a systematic way, suggesting they were searching for patterns and so an intrinsic need for the processility of the work, even though a piece of modern art may be abstract. Progress in genetics now allows us to look at differences and similarities in DNA and to make oues on when people developed as Homo sapiens as a distinct species. Recent research seems to support the idea of the great leap forward, thanks to comparisons of DNA from modern people and from mummified bodies of early near. Modern people show a much bigger range of differences in the DNA: it's a sign of bigger population sizes, more genetic mixing and less selective evolutionary pressures. The genetic evidence now appearing is showing that between about 100,000 years ago and 30,000 years ago, the human brain underwent a very sudden and considerable increase in size and complexity. This is in line with the idea of the great leap forward suggested by the evidence of art and music.

3.2. Language Development

At around 100,000 years ago, early humans were believed to have developed communication skills using symbolic gestures. According to an article on how language began, early ancestors created the first graphic symbols to be used as communication. There is very little evidence for how early language began during the prehistory of humans, but, over time, different types of languages and writing systems have evolved. Whilst not much is known about the language used by human ancestors from around 1 million years ago up to about 100,000 years ago, the development of modern human cognition most likely began at the start of this period. There was probably a slow increase in the use of language during this time, with symbols carved into things such as rocks. By about 30,000 years ago, early humans were starting to create symbolic figures and later, at around 15,000 years ago, they were producing a range of symbolic figures and patterns. This period, known as the Upper Paleolithic period, has been described as an era of explosion of symbolic thinking in early humans when language began to show transitions from basic to modern. In addition to the development of graphic symbols used in written language, sounds were also being developed into a more complex range of vocal communication. Theories on how language began suggest that it was during this period when human ancestors started to use vocal sounds and signals as a form of early language. Over tens of thousands of years, vocal sounds evolved into words that could be written and combined with the graphic symbols previously created by ancient humans, therefore producing written language.

4. Agricultural Revolution

4.1. Transition to Agriculture

4.2. Impact on Homo Sapiens Lifestyle

5. Rise of Civilizations

As people began to settle to start villages and towns, civilizations began to take shape. One of the consequences of people settling and not constantly moving around was the gradual growth of population. The population in one area could grow large enough that it had to be defined as a settlement, which were much larger than the groups that had existed before. These settlements were only possible because, for the first time, there was a reliable and consistent source of food. People did not have to rely solely on hunting and gathering anymore; they could make conscious choices about their diets and pick the foods that were the most nutritionally dense. It also meant that people develop and stay in one area for an extended period. Over time, these locations would attract more and more people, encouraging the local area to develop more and more until eventually a civilization was formed. These civilizations would boast a whole range of technological advances over the previous groups of peoples. Irrigation was implemented to help grow crops, and government systems were considered and formed to help control the people and the land. The use of metal working became widespread, which led to strong and durable tools and even weaponry. This prolonged wealth phrase is a term often used to describe areas of the world which are now in the post-industrial stage, but it is not an officially recognized term in geography. Ancient Greece and the Nile River civilizations are just two examples of areas that reached this point in the development. These civilizations would then give rise to empires, where multiple cultures, societies and peoples would be conquered and brought under a single rule. The civilizations would become more complex and powerful, building large cities and networks of trade that would cover countries, and even continents in some instances.

5.1. Urbanization

Urbanization is a fundamentally different process from the settlement pattern found in earlier Neolithic villages. As villages grow in population and specialization, some people begin to live in the increasingly large and densely populated community. Archaeologists refer to these higher-density population centers of ancient peoples as "urban centers" or simply "urbanism." However, not all towns and cities of the Neolithic or subsequent periods meet the criteria for "urban," according to the modern social scientist definition. At its core, urbanization is driven by the same demographic, social, and economic forces in the ancient world as it is today. In the past, just as now, the growth of cities was driven by a combination of natural increase (surplus births over deaths, with the excess population moving elsewhere) and immigration from the surrounding countryside. The push factors from rural areas can include subsistence crises (like famine or overcrowding), environmental changes, and disease. These have been known as "pioneers", "innovators", and "early", "middle" and "late followers" to urban centers. Early centers may have a variety of origins, often associated with charismatic individual leaders, favoring central place locations for increased control and the promulgation of their ideological and social views. Permanently occupied centers may have a larger number and more comprehensive range of activities and structures. However, when such centers grow past a certain stage in size and complexity, they may meet various criteria regarding the kind and style of layout, architectural and defensive forms, industrial and craft activities, and religious and ideological institutions. These criteria aid archaeologists in recognizing an urban center as a centralized, permanent, large and complexly structured human service and decision making settlement.

5.2. Political Systems

Political systems have also evolved. The very word 'politics' comes from the ancient Greeks, with the combination of 'polis' meaning state or city and 'tick' referring to a system or a set of rules. Most notably, we have seen the move from small city states without clear hierarchy such as those in Ancient Greece, to kingdom, empire and nation states with defined governments. This progress wasn't smooth and happened in different ways in different places. A case study of how to structure an answer in 20 mark questions. Profoundly, in prehistory, the fundamental 'political system' revolved around the family and kinship. Commune based societies were generally seen as the first successful settled societies, and are found in modern day Jordan in the form of the Natufian society from over 10,000 years ago. However, the lack of anything other than burials and long-term stone lined architecture shows a limited social hierarchy and the fact that politics as such didn't really exist as communal decisions would be made between the 'heads of families' without need for strict legislature or government. This ties in well with the idea that earlier political systems were just as much based on kinship and familial ties; in the same way that these kin-based societies often depended on natural resources and therefore there was the beginnings of organisation and specialisation.

5.3. Trade Networks

Trade networks were now much more extensive than ever before. While our species evolved in Africa and had spread to other continents over the millennia, these movements had always been hamstrung by our relatively slow migration rate. However, with the advent of trade, almost all bands could have access to the resources and technology of far off lands, hundreds and thousands of kilometres away. With populations increasing, the distances required for bands to stay apart also increased. This meant that bands would need to have been very mobile or they would have run out of local resources. This in turn would have meant more opportunities for territorial based conflict. But with the beginnings of trade, this wasn’t a problem. Territory between bands began to blur and dissolve, and we suddenly find bands and different societies much closer together. With increased contact came increased trade, and with increased trade, the societies involved in the trade had to make long term, stable alliances and agreements to regulate who could trade with whom and on what terms. Families and bands had started to settle down and create more permanent habitats. However, even this was changing with the advent of trade. New and exotic resources became available which facilitated new inventions and with increasing knowledge of metalworking, tools and pottery became more widespread. The breaking down of territorial boundaries also helped to marry together knowledge and resources from many different areas. Metalwork and plant technology began to be traded and the first evidence of regional identity starts to be seen in the archaeological records with different bands starting to share and develop technologies with their neighbours. This is seen most clearly in the development of what archaeologists call ‘Celtic’ agricultural technology. Far from being a homogenous process, the history of trade shows us that so many different technologies and cultures can mix and merge so that tangible uniqueness can be found in the artefacts and even the human remains we find.

6. Ancient Homo Sapiens Cultures

Ancient homo sapiens cultures covers human history from ancient times to the rise of advanced civilizations. In this chapter, some of the ancient cultures form the Near East to the Indian subcontinent and their contribution to the development of humankind are highlighted. The discussion starts in general terms with a look in to the way in which the homo sapiens lived. It is noted that ancient homo sapiens have been divided in to two major groups, known as the Paleolithic and Neolithic. The discussion then focuses on three particular ancient homo sapiens cultures. First, the Mesopotamian culture is discussed in terms of the development of complex social and political structures including the example of the Code of Hammurabi. Next, the attention is turned to the highly successful culture of the ancient Egyptians and their magnificent civilization. The importance of the Nile is noted, along with a key contributing factor to the success of the civilization; the unification of Egypt as one state. The final culture in the discussion, the Indus Valley civilization is considered; one of the world’s first urban cultures. Advancements in town planning and technological developments are noted and linked in to the impact of the ancient homo sapiens cultures upon worldwide historical changes. By the end of this chapter, the reader should have a greater understanding and an appreciation of the complex practices of humans that lived many hundreds of years ago. The principles of continuity, causation and the differences made by humans lead to a sense of the interconnectivity of humans through history.

6.1. Mesopotamia

The Mesopotamian civilization is situated between the Euphrates and Tigris Rivers. We know that these rivers are extremely prone to flooding, for this reason, we also define Mesopotamia as the area between two rivers in Greek. The land in between the rivers is fertile and good to produce crops and settle a community which is why this area is often called "The Cradle of Civilization". One of the most important cities in Mesopotamia is Ur. It is the city where the Sumerian civilization is believed to have begun around 4000 BC until 2000 BC. The construction of the city is also something remarkable. Citizens of Ur and other ancient Mesopotamian cities were among the first people to develop many complex technologies in the fields of science, government, mathematics, astronomy, and architecture. For example, the Babylonians who lived in Mesopotamia from 1900 to 500 BC used an advanced number system - the basis of our 60 seconds/minute, 60 minutes/hour, and 360-degree circle - and their calendar was based on the lunar cycle. Mesopotamian astronomers also made a number of important discoveries. For example, they were among the first to map the stars, using highly advanced mathematical practices for their time. The oldest known form of writing was found in Mesopotamia around 3200 BC and is known as "cuneiform". Cuneiform evolved from a list of characters which were initially used to make notes on clay tokens for trading and record-keeping and quickly developed into a complex writing compilation for the purpose of public information and knowledgeable literature. Mesopotamian society was very hierarchical, meaning that society was constantly being divided into social classes. These social classes were the possumer, or the rulers and nobility, amelu, the professionals and craftsmen, and mushkenum, the landless masses. As well as this, slavery was fairly common and prisoners of war who were captured within battle were often used as slaves in times of peace. Through the discovery of intricate works of arts and a remarkably vast cemetery within the region, it is believed that the people of Mesopotamia had very complex belief systems and cultural practices. For example, the "King's Cemetery" found in the ancient city of Ur includes the remains of both men and women, some of whom appeared to be guards and advisors to the king.

6.2. Ancient Egypt

People who were already Homo Sapiens arrived in Egypt about 100,000 years ago. They lived in the Nile valley and eastern desert, and these early inhabitants of Egypt were partly descendants of those original migrants out of Africa. Farming practices in Egypt are likely to have developed in the period after 10,000 BC. This era saw increasingly settled existence, the development of pottery and personal adornments and the construction of substantial buildings. By 5000 BC the two lands were displaying the characteristics of state-organized societies, the beginning of what has traditionally been called the 'predynastic' period in Egypt. The predynastic period in Egypt is the name archaeologists have given to the era before the large and powerful regions, and finally the first unified Egyptian kingdom emerged nearly 6,000 years ago. Incredibly, the predynastic period saw the beginnings of quite complex societies and the first manifestation of several key aspects of pharaonic culture. During the era called the 'dynastic' period in Egypt, from about 3100 BC onwards, the two lands were united under a single king and this was the beginning of ancient Egypt as a unified state. The period after about 3000 BC in Egypt is called the 'dynastic' period because it is organised into 'dynasties', families of kings or pharaohs who ruled as periods of successional royalty. This era ended just over 2,300 years ago when native Egyptian rule was replaced by the conquests of Alexander the Great from Greece and the foundation of the Ptolemaic period in Egypt.

6.3. Indus Valley Civilization

Finally, we come to the Indus Valley Civilisation, which is one of the greatest ancient Homo sapiens cultures that has not yet received the level of attention which it deserves. What is truly remarkable about the Indus Valley Civilisation is that all of its major settlements – such as Harappa, Mohenjo-Daro and Dholavira covered a remarkably large area and these cities were all constructed to a standard layout with almost identical buildings, with sewage and water systems which were also standardised throughout the civilisation. The fact that Indus Valley Civilisation had such advanced hydraulic engineering and urban planning, as well as social, economic and political conditions which could have regulated and directed that engineering, is indicative that they were a culture that was capable of coordinating large numbers of people and the technologies and resources available at the time. And yet, until the discovery of the civilisation in the 1920s and its subsequent excavation, no mention of it existed in any ancient texts, including those of the Vedas or the Mahabharata. As a result, according to our current knowledge of Homo sapiens societies and the development of cities, the Indus Valley Civilisation was uniquely distinct. The historical narrative is generally that it was only after the arrival of Homo sapiens civilisation from Mesopotamia, via Persia, that the Indians living in the Indus Valley adopted a hierarchical social structure, the use of Sanskrit and the basis of Hindu religion, and that these developments led to the so-called ‘Great Indian Classical Age’. However, the archaeological evidence, particularly the advanced nature of the civilisation, calls into question these ideas of a major outside influence and rapid societal change.

7. Homo Sapiens in Antiquity

In the time period leading up to the fall of the Roman Empire, there were many advancements that took place in human evolution. This was the era of antiquity, when ancient civilizations, such as the Greeks and the Romans, ruled the known world. It took several years of scrounging, but Homo sapiens had finally hit the jackpot. Tools, carvings and cave paintings dating to between 200,000 and 35,000 years ago have been uncovered, but it was only between the years 5000 BC and AD 100 that the race became capable of surviving. During this era the ancient Greeks and Romans made a vast array of scientific, medical and architectural discoveries that laid the foundation for the modern world. These societies evolved a system of democracy where they shared the power of government. In ancient Greece, the city of Athens first introduced this type of government. Later the Romans made their society democratic and this type of government was also used in the Roman Empire. An ancient civilization was a civilization that developed a surplus of food, allowing for a division of labour and leading to urbanization. The development of empires allowed ancient people to become more interconnected and advanced, therefore these type of civilizations had a great impact on surroundings and the world at large. However, the ancient civilization being advanced is not the only thing that separated the civilization from the prehistoric cultures, in fact, the most important four features of the civilization are: that it had cities that had some form of government in which a king or an emperor held power, they had limited job specialization and large trade, a social structure was organised from highest to lowest and advanced technology and artistic and cultural influence. We know that those with an understanding of Homo sapiens in antiquity and how they survived, there are collections of many ancient artefacts such as tableware, pottery and glass, and we have tried to understand how each period of prehistoric evolution became what it is now. These periods we have found are the Stone Age, the Bronze Age and the Iron Age. The evolutionary change in Homo sapiens is the increase in brain size and cranial capacity. Throughout the evolution of the brain in Homo sapiens, hair has been lost and bipedalism has been mastered.

7.1. Greek and Roman Contributions

The spread of Alexander the Great’s empire, and the way in which Greek customs influenced on his settled world, led to the growth in the Greek impact on the entire Eastern Mediterranean and the Middle East. After securing his empire in 331 BC, Alexander adopted and elongated the prevailing Pharaonic practices of Egypt for his own management, and Greek became the language used to manage that nation also. When the Roman Republic emerged as the predominant power in the Mediterranean, the Greeks and the collated Hellenistic kingdoms progressively become annexed by Rome. With the expansion of the Roman dominion, Latin replaced Greek, and declined the citizenship of the Hellenistic civilization. Nevertheless, Rome was still very much affected by Greece. For case, Roman architecture was based on the early Greek post-and-lintel system but had improved in the creation of arches and domes. Gradually, the Roman Empire practiced unity in imitations and adjustments of Greek art and culture. This period is known as the Hellenistic Period. Hellenistic art is the art of the Hellenistic period associated with Alexander the Great and his successors. The key characteristic of Hellenistic art is the veneration of the individual and the emphasis on emotion and portraying realism.

7.2. Spread of Christianity

Christianity began as a small sect of Judaism; although Christians claimed to follow the traditional Jewish God, Jews largely did not accept Jesus Christ as the Son of God, making it difficult for early Christians to convert others. Despite this, Christianity managed to gain serious popularity and by the time of Emperor Constantine, even threatening the stability of the Roman Empire; this is mainly due to the strategic spread of the religion. Initially, Christianity’s early followers and missionaries were usually the poorer and less educated of the Roman Empire; complete social outcasts or slaves, they would travel from towns to cities to spread the message of the Bible. This process involved adapting the teachings of Jesus to situations that the missionaries saw in everyday urban life around them; designed to make the message more attractive and relevant to city dwellers, this accidentally popularized the faith even more. When Christianity became decriminalized by the Edict of Milan in 313 AD, it was possible for Christian missionaries to take advantage of the excellent Roman roads and the safety and freedom that this new Emperor gave them. As Christianity was spreading South and West, adoption of the faith in Roman Britain was helped even more because Roman cities in the country were positioned along the easier-to-reach coastline – Christianity therefore began in Roman Britain in the South and quickly moved along to Wales and the far West, then continued in a linear fashion, spreading up the country.

8. Medieval Homo Sapiens

After the last glacial period, ending around 10,000 BC, the climate became more stable and conditions for hunting and gathering improved. While earlier species of hominids spread out of Africa, our own species proved remarkably successful and moved into many different parts of the world. In Europe, the continent that "modern" Homo sapiens have called home for the last 30,000 years, the first humans were already present at the end of the last glacial period. These Cro-Magnon people were physically identical to today's humans - less than 1000 years passed since the last ice age ended, by which time Homo sapiens had migrated into nearly every habitable dive on the planet. Also by this time the last of the earlier species of human, the Neanderthals, had become extinct. Some scientists believe that the two species interbred and this contributed to the success of Cro-Magnon man. Whether through extinction or integration, the competition for land and resources by the various species of human may have influenced the development and spread of new technologies.

8.1. Feudalism

Under the newly established feudal system, all nobles and knights swore oaths of loyalty to the king and promised to provide military service if necessary. In return, the king gave each noble and knight land. A noble who received land from the king was required to provide the king with men and money, which reinforced the king’s right to rule. Similarly, in binary form of the feudalism, common men who served as knights in the armies of their lords were also given land and protection by the lords that they served. The crowning of Charlemagne in AD 800 is often taken to represent the birth of feudalism. The theory goes that Charlemagne was ruler of the Franks, a collection of Germanic peoples and that his coronation as Holy Roman Emperor by Pope Leo III on Christmas Day signified a formal “pact” between the emerging feudal nobility and the church, represented by the pope. In reality, the adoption of a single code of law, a reliable currency (the “denarius” of the Roman Empire) and the beginnings of a centralised, bureaucratised state under Charlemagne show that the feudal system emerged in western Europe as a response to the anarchy and disorganisation left behind by the collapse of the Roman Empire. The fall of Rome in the 5th century and the subsequent collapse of the western part of the empire was a major long-term cause of the creation of the feudal system.

8.2. Crusades

The Crusades were a series of wars between Christians and Muslims that spanned the period between 1096 and 1291, and there were approximately nine Crusades in total. It drew on and further spread the advances made in technology, medicine and other sciences. For example, Muslim knowledge about map making, mathematics, cartography and navigation all filtered across Europe, and this was important when considering the technological and scientific aspects of the Renaissance. So in fighting in Crusades, the European countries matured in military, economic and social ways because they were forced to adopt to, and keep up with, new technology and ways of living. Also, Military Orders grew in number and importance in a way that they had not in any other previous period in the Medieval time frame. The First Crusade saw the arrival in Jerusalem of an Italian militia. Because of its fighting on behalf of the Pope and because of its extreme discipline and professionalism, the Pope actually recognised the Italian military groups as a ‘new kind of monk’ and this further developed Christian beliefs and religion. These same types of Orders eventually began to open up and recruit more English, German and French Christian men and this helped to broaden the start of Social Change in the armies of the Christian Crusaders.

8.3. Black Death

The third pandemic is known as the Black Death. It started in 1347 and lasted for about six years. It's widely believed that this pandemic began in Asia and exacted hefty death tolls in all of Europe, North Africa, and even many parts of Asia. The moving force behind such massive loss of human lives was a bacterium known as Yersinia pestis. This bacterium was carried by fleas hosted on the back of black rats, among other rodents. Ships leaving Caffa (an Italian port) were responsible for the spread of the pandemic from Asia to Europe. In the wake of the Black Death, the population of the world was reduced between 75 and 200 million. For Europe, the losses were catastrophic. It badly affected numerous cities such as Paris, Florence, and London. It is said that the economy of Europe sank not to recover again for many decades. Social fabrics of human communities began to pull apart. Massive depopulation occurred as about 40% of the people living in Europe lost their lives. There were widespread, but futile, social and religious movements. Entire towns such as Chalons in 1350 were literally turned into graveyards. It is recorded that this pandemic ended in 1353. However, before the pandemic ended, it had triggered a series of fatal pestilences that recurred every ten to twenty years - so called Landlife epidemics. Such a lethal pattern of recurring pandemics lasted until the 18th century.

9. Renaissance and Enlightenment

The "Renaissance and Enlightenment" period began with the end of the Mongol Empire's invasions and the beginning of the European interaction with the Silk Road. This long period of restructuring and "rebirth" within European society and the recorded advances in art, sciences and philosophy that followed, was brought about by the people of those societies had relied on in the past for ideas and governance. The outdated beliefs and traditions of the Catholic Church opposed the stark knowledge and understanding of the sciences. So it was that when great minds like Galileo Galilei, Nicholas Copernicus, and Francis Bacon gave birth to the Scientific Revolution, the church began to weaken and intellectual thought and questioning began to develop critique that could not be answered by the Pope. European based explorers from Spain, Portugal and England had begun to look further afield. The period of pioneering advancements and interest in invention and the development of science and technology was at its height in this time. In the south, Spain and Portugal had begun to branch out in their explorations of foreign lands, seeking land, resources and renown for themselves as self-styled exploring pioneers as the origins of race and expansion began. In the later period of the "renaissance" era, England was also making bold moves to seek its fortune and went on to gain a much greater stake in the future colonization and expansion of the "New World". The likes of Sir Walter Raleigh and Sir Robert Carey were famous explorers in this time. Both were key in opening up the opportunities that a new world and untouched. It was during this period of massive societal and technological development that many of the world's most lasting inventions came into existence. Printing presses, mills, flushing toilets, water pumps and even the very first mechanical clocks were all conceived of and executed during this "enlightened" period of history. All of these inventions would go on to form the building blocks of modern society and some, like printing presses which led to the sharing of more knowledge and helped to start the spread of educational advancement, would go on to hold major influence throughout history.

9.1. Scientific Revolution

Scientific revolution. The scientific revolution was the point in the Renaissance, widely recognized in the period 1550-1700 in which the view of society changed from superstition and religious dogma to reason and logic. Important developments in this revolution include the introduction of the scientific method, saner medical practices, the formation of the first science academies such as the Royal Society in England, and new discoveries in science, notably a heliocentric i.e. sun-centred universe. Examples of such discoveries include the first publication of the telescope in 1608, the discovery and naming of Saturn in 1610 and the widespread acceptance of Copernicus’ theory of heliocentrism following the work of Galileo and the publishing of Kepler’s first two laws. The concept of the scientific method is widely accepted as a development begun by the ‘founding fathers’ of the scientific revolution. This involves the use of inductive reasoning, where a discovery is made by first making an observation, challenging any existing worldviews and forming a theory and hypothesis as a result of this. This method, in contrast to prior Aristotelian science, allows for real and genuine scientific development through chaining together multiple discoveries and hypotheses. Key figures such as Galileo, a hugely important astronomer and physicist whose chief works include his experimentation and discoveries on sunspots in the “Starry Messenger” in 1610, championed the scientific method. As a result of the wide stretching changes made by this period, the modern conception of ‘science’ and the scientific advancements made during the enlightenment such as the work on the classification of animals and the production of the first vaccine against smallpox was made possible.

9.2. Age of Exploration

After rediscovering that the world was in fact round, European countries quickly began exploring the world. Christopher Columbus set out in 1492 on his first voyage to seek a route to the Far East via the Atlantic Ocean, but instead landed in the Caribbean Islands and thus discovering the Americas. This led to further voyages of discovery and trade explorations to the New World; King Henry VII sent John Cabot sailing in 1497 and the navigator Vasco Da Gama discovered a route around Africa to the Far East in 1498. By 1522, Ferdinand Magellan had led the first expedition to successfully circumnavigate the world. All of these voyages led to the explorers making vast amounts of new knowledge about the world – knowledge which would pave the way for major developments in the history of science. Alongside the knowledge gained from the voyages of discovery in the modern world, explorers were also rediscovering the knowledge of the Ancient World. Gradually, more and more books and maps were being discovered, many of which had been written by the Ancient Greeks and Romans who were known for their great abilities in mathematics and science. These books introduced Europeans to new ideas, new ways of working and new ways of thinking and communicating – which together would pave the way for the major developments in the scientific world that were soon to come. By 1600, the English East India Company was established which allowed England to trade with the Far East and Indian; this expanded the empire even further and more products and wealth could be gained from the new colonies in those areas. The Age of Exploration is the period from the early 15th century and continuing into the early 17th century, during which European ships were traveled around the world to search for new trading routes and partners. This included the often surprising and dangerous explorations being done in both the Atlantic and Pacific countries such as Spain, England, Portugal and even the Dutch Republic.

10. Industrial Revolution

In the years that followed, improved technology and trade allowed for increased wealth and a population boom. During the early 1700s businesses began to use new and more efficient means of producing goods. This period became known as the Industrial Revolution and completely transformed people's way of life in a very short space of time. Before the revolution, manufacturing was often done in people's homes, using basic tools and machinery. This was known as the domestic system. The revolution itself is often seen as a series of changes in the way things were made and manufactured from the use of machines and the growth of factories throughout the 18th and 19th centuries. If an example is given as part of an insight, it is more often than not followed by further analysis or a description of why this evidence supports the previously made point. Simple vocabulary such as 'new inventions like the flying shuttle' and 'large factories where hundreds of people worked' helps the audience's understanding and keeps the writing clear and to the point. Cleary's conclusion proclaims that because this force is 'more consistent and lasts for an infinite amount of time, in the foreseeable future at least, then we would have a method for supplying the energy needs of the population for a very long time. This gives a sense of his unwavering understanding and hope in the future developments of renewable energy, which enforces the understanding and acceptance of it by the reader. Some might state that the Industrial Revolution was an experimental time. However, the main people that experienced the impact of the revolution, the working and lower class, receive negated views and criticism in modern times that the key developments stemmed from the first Industrial Revolution were not true revolutions. This is due to the fact that 'present day society seems to be zeroing in on a digital revolution with no predecessor' according to American economist Olegario and that many key aspects of the revolution such as the 'system of technology' were only developed in the second wave of the revolution. On the other hand, Tilly argues that the continuous presence of word count: 1769. Writing time: 34 minutes.

10.1. Technological Advancements

Although many discoveries and inventions were made during the Industrial Revolution, the impact of particular achievements made in the realm of science and technology played critical roles in the advancements that were realized during the period. During the beginning of the 18th century, the agricultural revolution was a turning point in the technological and scientific advancement which seem to have taken lifetimes to be realized. It is during the period that the technical and information literacy of the workforce also increased in a positive way. The textile industry served to lead the way for other technological advancements. The first practical steam engine was invented by Thomas Newcomen. However, this engine was redesigned by James Watt in 1769 to produce the most transformational achievement in the human history. The invention and improvement on the steam engine technology by Watt over the period of 1769 and 1790 was the greatest driver to the radical economic and social changes brought about by the industrial revolution. Notably, this led to the introduction of iron smelting processes in the 1780s due to the increased demand for iron material for production of the steam engines. The introduction of the smelting process by Abraham Darby marked the use of mineral resources to smelt iron. By 1795, a British man named Jesse Ramsey was able to set the steam engine for mass production of cloth into motion; a new way of making work quicker and more efficient far from the traditional manual skills. He located the water powered engine in a hillside and used wire to transmit power to other wheels in factories that were located downhill. The powerful rotary action of the wheels would then drive the production machines hence workers would produce five times more cloth at the same time using traditional methods.

10.2. Urbanization and Labor Shifts

While the technological advancements in the first section primarily increased the overall production, the following shifts in labor led to specialization and urbanization. By making work easier in small scale labor, there was no need for all members of a family to work, allowing people to spend more time partaking in activities that developed the culture. The shift from agrarian to industrial society provided the single greatest deviation from long standing human social traditions – that being said, its advent was a backlash to the exploitation that the majority of workers fell victim to. Skilled workers such as carpenters and metalworkers were the most affected by the revolution as they were the most likely to be replaced by machines, and this led to the introduction of labor unions. On the other hand, the urbanization of the country provided an increase to living standards as contamination of both air and water was drastically reduced by the end of the 19th century. The widespread of the cities however, also aided in poor conditions especially in newly industrialized society. Cities grew as large numbers of people left the land to live in the urban centers. Housing, transport and water supply were all taken on by private companies during the 19th century which led to poor conditions as the merchants that owned the companies attempted to keep costs down - they therefore had little interest in the welfare of those that used the services. By 1860, over 20% of Britain’s population lived in urban centers and this shift in population distribution appeared to have an adverse effect on many aspects of traditional English life at the time.

11. Modern Homo Sapiens

The term 'modern' refers to the time that our lives today have been gloriously assembled with technology and cleverness. Throughout history, modern Homo sapiens has been developing progressively in all aspects such as intellectually, technologically and physically. But how do historians have evidence of such revolution from the past and how might it continue in the future? Well, the first human beings similar to Homo sapiens lived about 200,000 years ago; they made the same tools for about 100,000 years. As science and technology have been increasingly establishing themselves as main tools in helping students develop their understanding on a deeper level, history has been using them to help uncover the past. By doing so, it helps us to understand the process of change, identify the most significant events and realize the reasons for the location of development in a certain period of history. Ergo, it is central for historians to teach, discuss and put into practice such ways where students are able to recognize change and continuity with technology when investigating historical events and periods. By the time of the First World War, which lasted from 1914 to 1918, the ancestors of modern Homo sapiens were living in Africa. The first humans just like the Homo sapiens used to make the similar stone tools for 100,000 years until it changed to the kind of tools that were used during 1914. The First World War was the first time modern weapons were used. Such weapons included the machine gun and the tank. Thanks to the improvement of technology during the First World War, the way to the technological revolution began, leading the world to what it is now. Some of the key changes in the technological revolution that would be discussed in more detail later include the control of diseases, transport, communication and the huge scientific progress. After the Second World War, which was from 1939 to 1945, there was an increase in the world population. This was because the technology available meant energy supplies were cheap and efficient. Also, many lives were saved from diseases because of improved medical care. Such technological revolutions, caused by the two World Wars, marked the quickening of velocity in change and development in the modern era.

11.1. World Wars

Most scientists agree that World War I, particularly because of the initial tank and toxic gas uses, created a decisive change on military strategy. Tanks, one of the deadliest vehicles in history, were firstly used on this world war. Tanks revolutionized the way in which wars were fought and ended few numbers of large battles involving massive quantities of soldiers. Also, the first lethal gas attack came about under 2 months into war, often known as the second battle of Ypres. It’s a good example of the way in which war gradually resulted in more modern fighting styles, where death and destruction was more prevalent. I believe it are often rationalized to mention that this primary world war was the primary in which anything of substantial long-term value within the technological field happened. I reckon that the tip of the first war marked the start of what might be argued to be the foremost rapid amount of technological advancement within the history of mankind, the economic society period. I had learned tons from both the old and new information and that i felt that I had a far better understand of why certain mends had happened and the way other mends had contributed towards creating positive and negative mends.

11.2. Globalization

This period of time, beginning with the fall of the Berlin wall, is marked by the expansion of the global community. This fall juxtaposed with a 1990's rise in international technological expansion resulted in an increasingly interconnected global community. For the first time in human history, a true global environment was formed by technological innovation. The spread of both the internet and the idea of a democratic nation, the latter of which will be explored later, began an era in which the "first world" was not just a title, but a reality. However, with such large global changes, there are bound to be problems that must be resolved. Religion, for example, began to emerge as a major upholder of tradition as the digital age was born, fighting to be heard over an increasingly divisive world. As well, the internet helped to spread not just innovative technologies, but also radical and revolutionary ideas. For instance, in the year 2000, so-called "anti-globalization" groups made use of the internet in an effort to bring about a global agenda with local needs, focusing political agenda away from national policies and more towards centrally formed utopia. However, these groups operated on a more "traditional" organization system than the modern online social movements; a hierarchical structure of unified leadership like that of a corporation, which aimed to manipulate angry workers and form a "huge anti-globalization workers guild" under their personal direction. Such goals were massively unrealistic, but the use of both the internet and global movements set a dangerous precedent for political tensions across the world.

11.3. Technological Revolution

The advent of the computer is one of the significant events which marked the beginning of this epoch. The first real computer was designed in the early 19th century. It had less technological applications. Therefore, it was used mainly for entertainment and educational purposes. Its major application was to help visually display the various human digestive systems. After that, more and more complex computers were developed and there was increased desire for many people to create better and compact computers. This led to the development of a computer known as the microcomputer. This computer was more advanced and faster as compared to its predecessors. It marked the beginning of technological revolution and the development of modern digital computers. Other significant technological developments which had a lasting impact to the modern society have also gone underway at much a faster pace during the current information era. For instance, space exploration which was first begun in the 20th century has now yielded the development of modern telephones and satellite communication. This is the main reason why the current digital computers are not only much faster and more compact as compared to their predecessors but they are also more reliable especially for holding of vast amounts of data. It is the informational technological advancements of the current modern era that are making the world to be referred to as a global village.